نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

هیئت علمی دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی ، گروه فقه و مبانی حقوق اسلامی ، دانشکده علوم و تحقیقات اسلامی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی، قزوین، ایران.

چکیده

تأکید بر برنامه کنترل جمعیت در انگلیس و آمریکا در دهه های گذشته و افزایش بکارگیری روشهای پیشگیری به همراه پیشرفت تکنولوژیهای کمک باروری و تشخیص پیش از تولد، سبب طرح نوعی از دعاوی در دادگاههای این دو کشور شده که هدف آن‌ها، حمایت از حق به-زیستن کودکان است.

پژوهش پیشرو کوشیده با روش توصیفی و تحلیلی، به این سؤال پاسخ دهد که دعاوی به-زیستن کودکان چه نوع دعاوی و چه انتقادهایی به آنها وارد است؟

این دعاوی، به فراخور، از طرف کودکان یا والدینشان در دادگاهها طرح میشوند و بستر طرح دعاوی مذکور، تزاحم حقوق والدین، کودکان، پزشکان و جامعه است که نقدهای جدی چون تناقض ذاتی این دعاوی، تعارض با قوانین، عدم امکان ارزیابی خسارت در این پرونده‌ها، عدم ورود ضرر به کودک و تبعات منفی به آن وارد است. در حقوق ایران نیز از چند بعد طرح این دعاوی با اشکال مواجه است، مانند ابهام در موضوع دعوی و اسباب وجود حق و تعارض جدی طرح این دعاوی با قواعد انصاف و احسان، عرف و احکام و ارزش‌های اخلاقی.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Petition of Children's right of welfare in American and British Law by considering drafting these claims in Iran's law

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohaddeseh Moinifar

Faculty of Imam Khomeini, International University, Department of Fiqh and Fundamentals of Islamic Law, Faculty of Islamic Sciences and Research, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Emphasis on the population control program in the United Kingdom and the United States over the past decades, and as a result, increased use of contraception methods and failure of them, along with advances in assisted reproductive technologies and prenatal diagnosis, have led to litigations in the two countries' courts which are apparently aiming at supporting children's right to welfare.

This paper has been tried by using documentary method to answer the main question what is children's lawsuits of welfare right and what criticisms bring to them?

these types of suits are based on their own kind, petition on the part of children or their parents in courts, and the basis of this type of lawsuit is the conflict of the rights of parents, children, physicians and society, which, of course, includes serious criticisms such as inherent contradictions in these claims, conflict with the rules, the impossibility of assessing the damage in these cases, the failure to inflict harm on the child and the negative consequences. In Iran’s law, there are problems in several aspects of this lawsuit, such as ambiguity in the subject matter of the lawsuit and the reasons for the existence of the right and the serious conflict between the lawsuit and the rules of fairness and benevolence, custom and ethical rules and values.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • welfare
  • wrongful Life
  • Child
  • Parents
  • Disadvantages
  • کتاب‌نامه

    الف. کتب و مقالات

    الف-1. فارسی

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    جبعی عاملی، زین‌الدین بن علی. مسالک الأفهام إلى تنقیح شرائع الإسلام. قم: مؤسسه المعارف الاسلامیه، بی­تا.

    حکیم، سیدمحمدتقی. حواریات فقهیه. بیروت: مؤسسه المنار، 1416 ق.

    حلی، محمد بن حسن بن یوسف‌ (فخر المحققین). إیضاح الفوائد فی شرح مشکلات القواعد. قم:  اسماعیلیان، 1387‌.

    رازی نجفی اصفهانی، محمدتقی. تبصره الفقهاء. قم: مجمع الذخائر الإسلامیه،1427 ق.

    مروج جزائری، سیدجعفر. هدى الطالب فی شرح المکاسب‌. قم: دارالکتاب، 1416 ق.

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