Document Type : Research Article


Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University


Having offered a list of fundamental rights and freedoms, in this article I have argued in favor of their universalism v. their absoluteness. Making a justified distinction between two ideas of universalism and obsolutism and then advocating the idea of universality of certain morally restricted rights and freedoms against the idea of cultural relativism are the main achievements of this article. Also by distinguishing between macro and micro rights, I have attempted to justify sort of cultural pluralism in interaction with the idea of universalism. Offering a justified solution to solve the problem of the conflict of rights is another issue touched by the writer to define scope of certain universal rights and freedom



1- Almond, B. (1993), "Rights" in Blacwell Companion to Ethics.
2- Hartogh, G.D. (2000) The Slippery Slope Argument, in ed.Kuhse, H.and Singer, P., A Companion to Bioethics, Blackwell Publisher.
3- Honderich, T. (1995) Oxford Companion to philosophy.
4- Jones, P., (1996), "Rights", The Macmilan press." London.
5- World Conference on Human Rights, Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action. For the Full text see: Ghandhi, P.R. (1995), International Human Rights Ducuments, Blackstone, UK.