نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار حقوق دانشگاه قم

چکیده

یکی از مهم‌ترین نتایج تلاش‌ها در جهت متحدالشکل شدن حقوق اروپایی‎، اصول حقوق قراردادهای اروپایی است که پس از گذشت مدت کوتاهی از انتشار آن، در این قاره و در خارج از مرزهای قاره جایگاهی مناسب پیدا کرده است. اصول حقوق قراردادهای اروپایی اگر چه اصولی است که حامل سنت حقوقی اروپایی است؛ اما به نیازهای جهان مدرن در زمینه قراردادها نیز به نحو مناسب پاسخ داده است‎. همین ویژگی سبب شده است نویسندگان حقوق اروپایی آن را بخشی از قانون مدنی آینده اروپا بدانند‎. اصول حقوق قراردادهای اروپایی یک سند حقوق مدنی محوری و بنیادین است که در جهت اروپایی سازی حقوق قراردادها تنظیم و تدوین شده است‎. این اصول همچنین به عنوان سازمان دهنده جنبش اروپایی سازی حقوق خصوصی از درون و از زیر، در مقابل متحدالشکل نمودن حقوق اروپایی از طریق قانون گذاری از خارج و از بالا تلقی شده‌اند. این اصول که نوعی «soft law» هستند، از سوی دانشگاهیانی که عضو احزاب سیاسی و ارگان‌های حکومتی اروپایی نبودند، تنظیم و انتشار یافت.
به همین جهت می‌توانند همان کارایی «jus commune» را داشته باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Principles of European Contract Law: Bearer of Traditions and Response to Modern Needs

نویسنده [English]

  • Jalil Ghanavati

Assistant Professor of Law, Qom University

چکیده [English]

Among the documents on contract law, the Principles of European Contract Law (PECL) are the best result of the endeavors for the unification of European law in the realm of contract law. After expiration of a short time from its publication, the PECL find a suitable place in Europe and outside the Continent .The Principles have two important features: they contain the European legal tradition as well as respond the needs of modern world in the area of contract law.
The PECL do not bind the courts. They can only work by their force of persuasion. They are treated as soft law which was drafted and published by academics who are not members of political parties and governmental organs. However, the main purpose of the European Principles is to serve as a first draft of a part of a European Civil Code.
The PECL may also perform a function similar to that of the American Restatement of the Law of Contract, which was published in its second edition in 1981. The Restatement is a non-binding body of rules which purport to state the Common Law of contracts of the United States. It offers its rules to courts and arbitrators which need help and advice. It is part of the lex mercatoria.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • the Principles of European Contract Law
  • Legal Tradition
  • Common Frame of Reference
  • Soft Law
  • Jus Commune
  • Aquis Communautaire
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