نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانش‌آموختة واحد علوم و تحقیقات دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

چکیده

در دهه‌های اخیر بعضی از کشورهای اسلامی و رهبران سیاسی آن‌ها این ادعا را مطرح کردند که معیارهای فعلی حقوق بشر جهان‌شمول نیستند و بسیاری از کشورها و از جمله کشورهای اسلامی در تدوین آن‌ها مشارکت نداشته‌اند و این کشورها در زمینة حقوق بشر بایستی طرح دیگری تدوین کنند که با ارزش‌های فرهنگی آن‌ها سازگاری داشته باشد. در مقابل کشورهای غربی مدعی هستند که این کشورها در جریان شکل‌گیری این نظام حضور داشته و این ادعا دستاویزی برای نقض مقررات بین‌المللی حقوق بشر است. نویسنده در این مقاله در صدد اثبات این است که هر چند کشورهای اسلامی در دورة تدوین نظام بین‌المللی حقوق بشر مشارکت مؤثری نداشته‌اند، اما توانسته‌اند در توسعه و تحول آن مشارکت نمایند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Muslim States and International Human Rights Law: Contributions and Controversies

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohammad Hossein Mozaffari

Graduated from the Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University

چکیده [English]

In  recent decades, some Muslim states and their political leaders made critical remarks about human rights norms. They claimed that Human rights instruments were adopted without the participation of Muslim States and therefore, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights should be revised and alternative declarations must be devised that are fully compatible with Islamic Sharia as well as their cultural traditions. In reaction, WesternStates and scholars asserted that Muslim States contributed in the formation of human rights system and now they make recourse to Islamic Sharia as an excuse to deprive Muslim societies of human rights standards.
The author seeks to show that during six decades since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Muslim States did not remain in the same position as alleged by competing theories. Although Muslim States were not involved in the codification and adoption of basic human rights instruments, the situation has drastically changed. It is argued that Muslim States have played a significant role in the development of Human Rights discourse, despite the fact that they were not notably involved in the codification and formation of human rights system

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • human rights
  • Muslim States
  • Muslim World
  • Islamic Human Rights
  • International Human Rights Law
  • Organization of Islamic Conference

منابع

1-       An-Na'im, Abdullahi Ahmed; (ed.), Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives : A Quest for Concensus, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.
2-       Bossuyt, Marc J.; Guide to the "Travaux Préparatoires" of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, 1987.
3-       Cassese, Antonio; Human Rights in a Changing World, Polity Press, Cambridge, 1990.
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6-       Human Rights Today: A United Nations Priority; United Nations Publications, 1998.
7-       Mayer, Ann Elizabeth, Current Muslim Thinking on Human Rights, in: Al-Na,im,  Abdullahi Ahmed; Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A Quest for Consensus, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992).
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9-       Morsink, Johannes; Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Origins, Drafting, and Intent, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1999.
10-    Reteln, Alison Dundes, International Human Rights: Universalism Versus  Relativism, London, Sage,1990.
11-    Roosevelt, Eleanor; UN, Today and Tomorrow, 1953.
12-    Waltz, Susan; “Universal Human Rights: The Contribution of Muslim States” Human Rights Quarterly, 2004. Vol. 26:No.4, p.808.
13-    Year Book of the United Nations, 1946-47, Department of Public Information, United Nations, New York,p.524-25.
14-    Year Book of the United Nations, 1948-49, Department of Public Information, United Nations, New York,p.528.

اسناد

15-    Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief, G.A. res. 36/55, 36 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 51) at 171, U.N. Doc. A/36/684 (1981).
16-    Official Records of the General Assembly, 15th session , 1960, Third Committee 1022nd  Meeting, at:1.
17-    Official Records of the General Assembly, 15th session , 1960, Third Committee 1023rd   Meeting, at: 11.
18-    Official Records of the General Assembly, 5th session , 1950, Third Committee at:122, 181, 258.
19-    Official Records of the General Assembly, Plenary meeting 182sd (part I),10 December 1948,  pp. 890-99.
20-    Official Records of the General Assembly, Plenary meeting 183rd (part I),10 December 1948,  p.912.
21-    Official Records of the General Assembly, Plenary session , 1951-52, at: 517.
22-    Official Records of the General Assembly, Third session (part I)1948, Third Committee 128th  Meeting, pp.370, 403-408, 407.
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