نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

در سال‌های اخیر، به ویژه پس از تقدیم «لایحة آزادی اطلاعات» به مجلس شورای اسلامی، بحث از آزادی اطلاعات در مجامع حقوقی کشور اهمیت خاصی پیدا کرده است. باوجود این، مباحثی که در این خصوص صورت گرفته بیشتر به ضرورت و اهمیت این آزادی معطوف بوده و به سایر جنبه‌های آن توجه زیادی نشده است.
این مقاله در صدد است علاوه بر توضیح مفهوم و مبانی آزادی اطلاعات، اصول و قواعدی را که برای شناسایی و اعمال کارآمد آن در نظام حقوقی کشور باید مورد توجه قرار گیرد تبیین نموده و نحوة کاربست اصول و قواعد مذکور در قوانین آزادی اطلاعات برخی از کشور‌ها را مورد مطالعه تطبیقی قرار دهد. این مقاله می‌تواند در نقد و بررسی لایحة مذکور و تصمیم گیری در خصوص آن مفید باشد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Concept, Foundations and Requirements of Freedom of Information

نویسنده [English]

  • Bagher Ansari

Assistant Professor of Law, Shahid Beheshti University

چکیده [English]

Recently a bill on freedom of information is submitted to Iranian parliament. This bill has stressed on the right of access to information held by public entities. It seems, however, that there is no common conception in Iranian society regarding freedom of information and its very requirements for being fully fulfilled. This essay, using a comparative method, has introduced foundations and requirements of freedom of information and making it as a real and efficient tool for access to real information. Results of this research can be used in law making regarding freedom of information.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Freedom of Information
  • Right to Information
  • human rights

منابع

الف- کتاب‌ها و مقالات

1-        Alexander ,Larry A. ; Freedom of Expression as a Human Right, University of San Diego, School of Law, Working Paper 23, Winter 2000-2001.
2-        berge ,Achim; Improved rules on public access to documents?StockholmUniversity,2000.
3-        Carver ,Richard ; Freedom of Information : Training Manual for Public Officials,. http://www. article19. org/pdfs/tools/foitrainersmanual. pdf.
4-        Curtin ,Deirdre M. ; Betwixt and Between: Democracy and transparency in the governance of the European Union; in : Winter, Jan A. // Deirde M Curtin/ Kellermann Alfered E. /de witte, Bruno, Reforming the European Union – The Legal Debate , Den Haag 1996, available at:http://www. agro-montpellier. fr/sustra/research-themes/trade-refdocreform2. htm.
5-        Declaration of Principles on Freedom of Expression in Africa, Principle IV, 32nd Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights, 17-23 October 2002, Banjul, The Gambia, available at:http://www. awate. com/artman/publish/article-3194. shtml.
6-        Dyrberg ,Peter; “Current Issues in the Debate on Public Access to Documents”, European Law, Review 1999, Available at:http://europa. sim. ucm. es:8080/compludoc/AA?a= Dyrberg %2c+peter&donde=otras &zfr=0.
7-        Frankel ,Maurice; Freedom of Information and Corruption,. Paper for the Global Forum on Fighting Corruption and Safeguarding integrity (The Campaign for Freedom of Information, May 2001), at: www. cfoi. org. uk.
8-        Federal Transparency and Access to Public Government Information Law, 215Available at:http://www. gwu. edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB68/laweng. pdf.
9-        Handbook on Indiana’s Public Access Laws; Indiana Attorney General, Office of the Public Access Counselor,2001, available at:http://in. gov/pac/ handbook/Handbook. PDF.
10-     Iyer ,Venkat; Freedom of Information: Principles for Legislation,2000,at: http://www. bytesforall. org/Egovernance /html/freedom_info. htm.
11-     Mendel ,Toby ; “The Public’s Right to Know : Principles on Freedom of Information Legislation” (London: June 1999). Preface, at:http://www. article 19.org.
12-     Mendel ,Toby; “Freedom of Information as an Internationally Protected Human Right”, at: www. article 19. org.
13-     Mendel ,Toby; The Public’s Right to Know: Principles on Freedom of Information Legislation, Article 19, London, 1999, at: http:www. article 19. org/.
14-     Johannsburg Principles on National Security, Freedom of Expression and Access to Information, at: http://www. Article 19. org/docimages/511. htm.
15-     Role of Scientific and Technical Data and Information in the Public Domain: Proceedings of a Symposium, Steering Committee on the Role of Scientific and Technical Data and Information in the Public Domain, Office of International Scientific and Technical Information Programs, National Research Council,. 2003, http://www. nap. edu/catalog/10785. html.
16-     Transparancy International; Source Book 2000, Confronting Corruption: The Elements of a National Integrity System, available at: http://www. transparency. org/sourcebook/24. pdf.
17-     Twomey ,Patrick;“Case T-194/94, Carvel and Guardian Newspaper Ltd v. EU Council”, Common Market Law Review, 1996.
18-     Verhoeven ,Amaryllis; “The Right to Information: A Fundamental Right?” Lecture at EIPA (Maastricht, May 29, 2000), p. 1 , available at: http://www. eipa. nl/Publications/Summaries/1997-2000/working Papers/Conference Proceedings/Amaryllis. pdf.
19-     Vesterdorf ,Bo; “Transparency–not Just a Vague Word”, Fordham International Law Journal, 1992.

ب- قوانین

20-     Access to Information Act(Canada), Available at: http://canada. Justice. gc. ca/ STABLE/ EN/Laws/chap/A/A-1. html.
21-     Access to Public Information Act ( Bulgaria),2000, http://www. aip-bg. org/library/laws/apia. htm.
22-     Federal Transparency and Access to Public Government Information Law (Mexico)2002, 215Available at:http://www. gwu. edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB /NSAEBB68/laweng. pdf.
23-     Freedom of Information Act ( United Kindom),2000,http://www. opsi. gov. uk/ACTS/acts2000/20000036. htm
24-     Freedom of Information Ordinanc ( Pakistan) 2002, No. XCVI of 2002. F. No. 2(I)/2002-Pub. Islamabad. The 26th October 2002, at: http://www. Crep. sdnpk. org/ordinance of 2002. htm.
25-     Freedom of Information Act ( India) ,2002, Act No. 5 of 2003, January 6, 2003,http://www. manupatra. com/downloads/acts/the%20freedom%20of% 20information%20act%202002. htm.
26-     Freedom of Information Act ( USA) ,1966, Available at : http://www. epic. org/open-gov/foia/us-foia-act. html.
27-     Law Concerning Access to Information Held by Administrative Organs. http://www. soumu. go. jp/gyoukan/kanri/translation3. htm.
28-     Loi no 78-753 du 17 Juillet 1978 de la Liberté d accés au documents administratifs; Loi no 79-587 du Juillet 1979 relative á la motivation des Actes administratifs et à l’amélioration des relations entre l’administration et le public. Amended by Loi n˚ 2000 – 321 du 12 avril 2000 relative aux droits des citoyens dans leurs relation avec les administration (J. O. du 13 avrill 2000). Travaux preparatoires, at:http://www. assembleenationale. fr/2/2dbc-2000. htm≠loi2000-321.
29-     Official Information Act (Thailand), 1997, http://www. oic. thaigov. go. th/eng/statue/Statutedata. htm
30-     Promotion of Access to Information Act ( South Africa), 2000. http://www. gov. za/gazette/acts/2000/a2-00. pdf.
 
 
CAPTCHA Image