نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

آیا می‌توان از ویژگی‌های شخصیت دیگری تقلید کرد؟ پاسخ نظام‌های حقوقی مورد مطالعه به این پرسش در فرضی که ویژگی‌های شخص، متمایز و برای عموم مردم شناخته شده باشند، منفی است؛ با این تفاوت که در نظام حقوقی آمریکا، حق ویژه‌ای به­نامِ همانندی شناخته شده تا خود شخص دربارۀ تقلید از ویژگی‌هایش تصمیم بگیرد. در نظام حقوقی انگلیس، به این موضوع، بیشتر از این جهت توجه شده که تقلید از دیگری در آگهی‌های تجاری، سبب فریب مصرف‌کنندگان می‌شود. در نظام‌های آلمان و فرانسه، با استناد به مفهوم کلی حقوق شخصیت، تقلید از اوصاف شخص ممنوع دانسته شده است. به نظر می‌رسد در نظام حقوقی ایران، با توجه به قواعد عمومی مسئولیت مدنی، قاعدۀ دارا شدن بلاجهت و قواعد ناظر به مالکیت ادبی و هنری ممنوعیت یاد شده قابل استنباط باشد. با این حال، از آنجا که نظام حقوقی ما جامعیت کافی برای اینکه بتوان حق ویژه‌ای برای اشخاص نسبت به ویژگی‌هایشان شناخت ندارد، نیاز است تا قانونگذار قانون خاصی را دراین­باره تصویب کند.   

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative Study of Imitation of another Personality In the legal Systems of the United States, Britain, Germany, France and Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • Abbas Mirshekari

Assistant Professor, Department of Private Law , University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Is it possible to imitate other personality features? The answer to this question, in the hypothesis that the personality features are distinct and well-known to the public, is positive in the legal systems studied. With the difference that in the American legal system, a special right is known in the name of LIKENESS, so that the person himself decides about imitation of his qualities. In the British legal system, according to the PASSING OFF Foundation, imitation is prohibited when it deceives consumers. In German and French systems, the imitation of a person's personality features is also prohibited by reference to the rights of the person. In the legal system of Iran, it seems that according to the general rules of civil liability, and the rule of Unjust enrichment, prohibition of the imitation of a person's personality features is inferred. In the case of imitation without permission, the damages (Both material and mental) must be compensated.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Reputation
  • Damage
  • Personality
  • Civil Responsibility

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