نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه حقوق دانشگاه علوم انسانی دانشگاه شاهد

چکیده

کنوانسیونهاى ضد تروریزم و مسأله صلاحیت دولتها در تعقیب و مجازات متهمان به ارتکاب اعمال تروریستى موضوع ایجاد صلاحیت (کیفرى)نسبت به متهمان اعمال تروریستى یکى از مشکلات موجود در مبارزه با تروریزم بین الملل است. در حال حاضر دولتها ملزم به استرداد متهمان یا محاکمه آنها نیستند و تکلیف دولتها در استرداد متهمان بر اساس معاهده استرداد صورت مى‏گیرد. مجرمان سیاسى از استرداد مستثنا هستند و قلمرو بعضى از دولتها به صورت مکان امنى براى مجرمان سیاسى در آمده است. براى حل این مشکل تمامى کنوانسیونهاى ضد تروریزم مقرراتى را در مورد تعقیب و مجازات مجرمان وضع نموده‏اند و تلاش دارند، با ایجاد صلاحیت براى کشورها نسبت به متهمان اعمال تروریستى راه را بر فرار متخلفان سد کنند.
این کنوانسیونها که بر سیستم اجرایى غیر مستقیم تأکید دارند، بر اصل استرداد یا مجازات، پایه‏گذارى شده‏اند. بر این اساس، دولتهاى عضو موظفند تا متهمان در قلمرو خود را محاکمه و یا به دولت عضو دیگرى که تقاضاى استرداد دارد، تسلیم کنند.علاوه بر این، در صورت لزوم، کنوانسیون مربوطه به عنوان یک معاهده استرداد عمل خواهد کرد و جرایم مندرج در کنوانسیون، جرایم قابل استرداد محسوب خواهند شد، هر چند با انگیزه‏هاى سیاسى انجام شده باشند. این مطالعه سعى دارد تا ضمن بررسى سیستم اجرایى موجود در کنوانسیونهاى ضدترورریزم و ویژگیهاى آن، میزان تأثیر و توفیق چنین سیستمى را در برخورد با تروریزم بین الملل مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار دهد

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

THE COUNTER-TERRORISM CONVENTIONS AND THE PROBLEM OF JURISDICTION RREGARDING ROSECUTION AND PUNISHMENT OF TERRORIST OFFENDERS

نویسنده [English]

  • Siamak Karamzadeh

Assistant Professor of Law, Shahed University of Humanities

چکیده [English]

One of the legal problems in combating terrorism is the establishment of jurisdiction over terrorist offenders. At present there is no obligation upon states to extradite the offenders or to try them. The obligation of extradition arises out of an extradition treaty. Political offenders are exempted from extradition and territories of some states have become a safe heaven for terrorist fugitives.
The counter- terrorism conventions which have the similar structure seek to regulate or extend criminal jurisdiction of the contracting states over different forms of terrorism. All of the anti-terrorist conventions including universal and regional are founded on the principle of aut dedere, aut judicare. It means that the signatory states are obliged to prosecute offenders whenever extradition has not been granted. The offences enumerated in the conventions shall be deemed as extraditable offences and when it is required, the conventions shall be used as a surrogate extradition treaty.
This system of enforcement has not been successful in controlling terrorism. No compulsory enforcement system can be found in any of the counter- terrorism conventions. When state parties refuse to do their obligations regarding extradition or prosecution of offenders, there is no effective mechanism to compel these delinquent states. Present treaties are too easily ignored by signatory states who often consider treaty obligations to political consideration. Therefore, it becomes necessary to develop a more effective legal system to ensure justice and to coordinate policy regarding this universal problem.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Terrorism
  • COUNTER-TERRORISM CONVENTIONS
  • Jurisdiction
  • Extradition
  • Punishment

منابع

1- Bassiouni,M ., International Extradition and World Public Order,(Sijthoff Oceana 1974.
2- Williams ,G., "Venue and Ambit of the Criminal Law Quarterly" 81 Law Quarterly Reports 1965.
3- Sucharitkul, S., "International Terrorism and the Problems of Jurisdiction", 14 Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce 1984.
4- McCarthy,J.G.,."The Passive Personality Principle and its Use inCombating Fordham International Terrorism" 13 Fordham International Law Journal 1989-1990.
5- Freestone ,D., "International Cooperation Against Terrorism and the Development of International Law Principle of Jurisdiction ,"in Higgins,R.and Flory,M ., (eds.), Terrorism and International Law(Routledge, London, 1994.
6- Stein ,T., "Extradition ", Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Elsevier Science Publishers B.V, 1985).
7- Baumann,C.E., The Diplomatic Kidnappings - A Revolutionary Tactic of Urban Terrorism (Martinus Nijthoff, 1973).
8- UN.DOC.A/C.6.418, (1972).
9- Bassiouni ,"The Penal Characteristics of Conventional lnternational Criminal Law" , 15 Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 29 (1983)
10- The Convention on Offences and Certain other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft; 704 UNTS 219, 1970.
11- The Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraf; 860 UNTS 105, 1972.
12- The Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safty of Civil Aviation 947 UNTS, 1973.
13- The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes Against International Protected Persons, Including Diplomatic Agents; 13 Internationally Legal Materials 41, (1974).
14- The International Convention Against the Taking of Hostages 18 ILM 1460 (1979).
15- The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material ,18 ILM 1419 (1979).
16- The Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safty of Martime Navigation; 27 ILM 668 (1988).
17- International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, 10 Jan 2000.
18- Convention to Prevent and Punish the Acts of Terrorism Taking the form of Crimes Against Persons and Related Extortion that are of International Significance; 10 ILM 255 (1971).
19- Galor, N., International Co-operation to Suppress Terrorism (Croom-helm, 1985).
20- Paust ,J.J., "A Survey of Possible Legal Responses to International Terrorism Prevention , Punishment and Cooperation Action" 5 Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law 454 (1975).
21- The European Convention on the Supperssion of Terrorism; 15 ILM 1272 (1977).
22- Case Concerning Questions of International and Application of the 1971 Montreal Converntion Arising from Incident at Lockerbie (Libya Arab Jamahiriya v.U.K; Libya Arab Jamahiriya v.U.S) ICJ.Rep. (1992).
23- Order of the ICJ, 14 Apr. 1990.
CAPTCHA Image